What are the changes in Currency? About Bitcoin

          The words “Cryptocurrency and Bitcoin ” are new to the world of the Internet. The technology started on the internet just happen in a few years before. The Block-Chain technology going to be a revolution on the internet. Currency changed his physical form to digital form. Just before few years. Let’s start with the first system when the currency not available in the market.

BARTER SYSTEM

Once upon a time, means centuries before there was a Barter System when the Currency was not invented. The people of that time exchange goods and services, return of goods and services. Money was not invented at that time. The value of the product that has in the market would not proper for all to exchange it. The people were worried about the value of the goods they have it. So many times they didn’t get the right value for product and services. Sometimes the people of that time faced so many problems.


COIN CURRENCY: 

So many centuries before means, 7th and 6th century B.C. of Roman Empire made the Coin Currency of Gold and Silver. The invention of first Lydian Coin Currency was made of the alloys of silver and gold, after some time it became the alloy of silver and copper. These coin currencies are generally in the shape of round piece and small in size. Coin Currency made so easy and simple to the people of that time to buy and sell, goods and services. Coins became legal tender to trade in the market. That time of Emperors gave value for coins in the form of metals made of it. Like Gold, Silver, Copper, and others metals.

Different coins

PAPER CURRENCY:

China was the first country to use Paper Currency in the 7th century, made of Tang Dynasty. Compared to Coin money with Paper Currency is easy to carry and trade in the market for goods and services. Paper Currency is the most popular currency in all of the other currency. Paper Currency was made by different denomination like 10s, 100s, 500s, 1000s and more in nowadays. Every country printed its currency and gave it as legal tender. Central or Main Banks issue the currency of their country. They print currency only that amount of it which is equal to gold available in that country to balance the Economy of them.
U.S currency

PLASTIC CURRENCY 

The term Plastic Currency is different to hear but actually, we all are using in this decade. You didn’t get it. The Plastic Currency is nothing but the Debit and Credit Cards. It is more simple and easy to carry more and more money in our pocket. No issue of change of currency like we can take or give the exact amount of goods and services. This Plastic Currency depends upon the computers and internet, how easy became the technology to use. Easily can transfer amount in few seconds through it to anywhere.

Debit and Credit Cards


CRYPTOCURRENCY 

Now, let’s come to the currency which we are going to see in coming future. Actually, we all heard of it in News channels, Print media and on the internet also, that is nothing but Crypto-Currency. 

We can say as it future currency. As we all know that before the name of Crypto-Currency we first heard about Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a Crypto-Currency
After Bitcoin came into the world and within a few years so many other Crypto-Currency came into existence. Like Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Stellar, Dash and etc., 
Cryptocurrencies are not available in the physical form. Below image is just an imagination only. 
Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum and Ripple

BITCOIN 

The word “Bitcoin” is new to the people of some countries or even don’t know, they feel what is the Bitcoin is? About Bitcoin is something old to the world of the Internet. 
In the year 2009 of January month Bitcoin was released. Bitcoin was invented by the Satoshi Nakamoto. Nobody knows that Satoshi Nakamoto is a person or group. Bitcoin is the first digital currency which is decentralized. Bitcoin system work without any Central Bank or any Administration.
Bitcoin is mined through the internet. Only 21 million Bitcoins are available. Transactions of Bitcoin is in public distributed ledger called a Block-Chain. Block-Chain technology is secure in the terms of transactions of Crypto-Currency
Bitcoin is exchanged in many country currencies. In the year 2009, the price of Bitcoin was in less than 1 USD, but now (2018) it is nearly 7000 to 8000 USD of only one single Bitcoin. 
As we know Bitcoin and other coins (cryptocurrencies) are stored in digital form only. So it is not available in a physical form which we cannot touch it or feel it.
See the below picture of Bitcoin imagination.
First Cryptocurrency
At present Bitcoin is the highest price of all cryptocurrencies. So many exchanges came into existence to trade cryptocurrencies, not only Bitcoin but also other cryptocurrencies. 
Let’s see what would be the future of the cryptocurrencies and especially about Bitcoin.

Technology in Telecommunication – Telephone and Mobile Phone

Communication

Communication is to communicate to the other people who are far to them. Once upon a time communication was done by the writing letters and to post them to the corresponding address to whom they want to send. To receive the letter took two to ten days of time and sometimes it took more. But still, now the technology was so much advanced though in some of the Government offices and for the official use they send letters by post office only. The communication of this way is still lives and sometimes it more than any other communication.


Telephone

The telephone was the first device to use as telecommunication. The year 1876 Alexander Graham Bell was who invented Telephone and took the patent rights from the Government of United States. The telephone was the object which is used to communicate with people far from the distance in the human voice. Telephone converts sound into electronic signals which are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduce the sound to the receiver.

Vintage Telephone

Above the century telephone was the invention that the world stands on the same platform. It took the entire world very close and the communication became very fast before it was invented. Within a few minutes, the communication sent to anywhere in the world.

Nowadays, the technology was so advanced but still, the telephone is present in many Government Offices and the private companies to communicate. I think the reason is telephone (landline phone) doesn’t require electricity and maintenance cost.

As the technology changes the telephone also seen different types of models. Like the dial of numbers became keypad and the receiver become without wire means cordless phones arrived.

Once upon a time, landline phones played a major role in our life just a 20 to 25 years before. That time landline phones were not available everywhere, only at PCO where we have to pay money to make a call and that time it was very costly, so that’s why people talk only important matter in it. After sometime every home was had a telephone.

Mobile Phone

The device which can take with us anywhere and it is fit in our pocket, which has no wires or any big battery. The mobile phone is also known as Celluar phone or cell phone. First, the commercially launched cell phone in the year 1983. 
From that time till now the mobile phone has seen generations in it. They are first generation (1G), second generation (2G), Third generation (3G), and now it is the fourth generation (4G). What are the differences made by cell phone in generations? Let’s see…

First Generation (1G)

The first generation mobile phones were looks like big cordless phones. It was so much of weight and the cost of the call was also so costly. It is maximum use to call only, there were no other features available in it. That time these cell phones are maximum used by somehow rich people who can afford it. The first generation mobile phones have buttons called keypad and a small display to see the number which has been typed to call and end the call.

Second Generation (2G)

The second generation mobile phones were less weight compared to the first generation mobile phones, it has more features than the first generation mobile phones like, not only for calling but also to text messages, MMS (Multimedia services), calculators and Java-based games to play. These 2G phones became the revolution in the mobile industry. It was cost efficient to all the people to buy it and easy to use. The internet was used in this phones but it was very slow to load and download. The display was used in 2G phones were maximum colored.

second generation mobile phone


Third Generation (3G)


The third generation mobile phones were most of the touchscreen phones and it was based on the software called “Android” which is developed by the company “Google“. Android has given so many versions like Jellybean, KitKat, Lollypop, Marshmallow, Nougat, and Oreo (till now). In 3G phones, there are more and more features like camera, video recorder, audio recorder, video calling and the internet speed to transfer data that given more attachment to human life.

Fourth Generation (4G)

The fourth generation mobile phones or we can say “Smart Phones“. Entire the world changed with this smartphones just calling by phone is nothing in it, we can have the whole world in our hands. The smartphone has so many features that cannot imagine. The speed of Internet was like the speed of light just one touch we can download audio, video files in few seconds. We have maps in it to find the places where we have to go. High-resolution videos play online, sending emails, unlimited applications (apps) which are most useful in our daily life. We can have weather reports daily and many more which cannot be described in few things. As simply say a mini computer is in our hands.
Fourth generation cell phone
Finally, in coming future, we cannot imagine how mobile industry going to be. Is will stop here, no I don’t think so. We will see more and more versions of it or we say generations. I recently heard about the technology called transparent screen, which is fit in spectacles and it works on our voice technology and also works on face recognition. Just we have to give commands only. I saw in the Hollywood movies some of them. 

Generations of Computer- Abacus to Supercomputer

ABACUS

Calculations done on fingers is simple for some small one. Like addition and subtraction, so what about multiplication and division, it was not done on fingers. So that time abacus was created for calculations. It was used in Europe, China, and Russia. The exact origin of the abacus still unknown. Abacus is often constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires. Abacus is also called counting frame. Abacus to teach arithmetic to children. Abacus is like a gift for people who is visually impartial.

Manual Calculator




GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER



The word “Computer” was used in the 18th century. It means doing calculation or computing. The Computer changed the entire world. When it was invented that time no one knows it will take a major role in our daily life. Nowadays, you go any of the offices in your locality or in your city, you definitely see the computer on the table. Whole work is done on the computer, which became easy to all. 

Now let’s see how the computer changed from the space occupied of a room to the table or our lap. The computer has seen generation and had a major changed in its physical form and also mechanical form. 

Before we go deep inside it first we start with the man who is the mechanical engineer, polymath and also the “father of the computer” Mr, Charles Babbage. He originated the concept of a programmable computer. 


  • FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTER 


1940-1956 is called the period of the first generation of computer. The first generation Computer is used of vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. It was enormous, taking up entire rooms. It named as the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical, Integrator and Computer) was built in 1943 and used 18000 vacuum tubes. ENIAC can do 1900 additions per second. It was used with punched cards for input and output. Another important stored program machine of this generation was the UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). It used 5000 vacuum tubes and it was first successful commercially available machine. It was able to execute ten times as many additions per second as the ENIAC. Also during this period, the first IBM computer was shipped. It was called the IBM701.


  • SECOND GENERATION OF COMPUTER


1956-1963 is called the period of the second generation of computer. The second generation Computer is used for Transistors. The second generation machines were programmed in languages such as COBOL ( Common Business Oriented Language) and FORTRAN ( Formula Translator). It was used for a wide variety of business and scientific tasks. Magnetic disks and tape were often used for data storage.


  • THIRD GENERATION OF COMPUTER


1964-1971 is called the period of the third generation of computer. The third generation computer is used  ICs. (Integrated Circuits). Many transistors are in a single IC. ICs use high-level programming language. Transistors are placed on silicon chips which are called semiconductors. These semiconductors increased the speed and efficiency of a computer.



  • FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER



1972-2010 is called the period of the fourth generation of computer. The fourth generation computer used VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). VLSI is having 5000 transistors and other circuit elements on a single chip. Fourth generation computer became more powerful reliable and affordable. It gave rise to “Personal Computer” (PC). All high-level languages C, C++ etc., were used. In this generation concept of “Internet” was introduced.



  • FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER


2010- till date is the fifth generation of computer. The fifth generation computer used ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration)  The computer using Parallel processing is the fifth generation computer. This processing is going to take place in A.I.(Artifical Intelligence). Making of Robots and having human language. The computer which can interface with human beings and it’s understandable.



  • SUPERCOMPUTER
Till now we I said about the computer generations, besides that scientist thought about more to do calculations about the weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, quantum mechanics and etc., which an ordinary computer cannot do it. 



A supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS). The Cray CDC 6600 supercomputer was world’s first Supercomputer. PARAM 8000 was India’s first supercomputer made by Centre for Development of an Advanced computer (C-DAC)

By the help of Supercomputer, the scientist can exactly calculate the weather conditions, the distance between objects in space. Like distance between the Sun and the moon to the Earth. Even the age of the Earth and many objects.

Finally, how the journey of the Technology by the human being is going The Abacus to The Supercomputer. Is it stop here, I say no, there is no end for the Technology is going on process till human is on the earth.

Introduction of Technology- History, Invention, Advantages and Development

Technology, the word which is used in the recent years. Life changes, as we know we all are surrounded by technology, not only we I mean the entire world is surrounded by the technology. If you see any sector or any industry around you, which is running with technology. Why should we go long just see in our homes? Like television (T.V), mobile phones, computers and many more. We feel very lucky that we all seen how landline phone became mobile, how Black & White T.V. became color T.V.s not only color T.V.s but also became LEDs, OLEDs, HDs, Curved and many more. Let us see the computers…Basically, the computer was not the invention first, its started from an abacus it’s for calculation only, from there scientist invented calculators and then the computers. 

Technology, we all in the starting era of it, as we can say that, we are the first generation of technology. Just get back to the years of our childhood, have we seen the computer, have we seen the mobile phone, have we seen the digital camera, have we seen C.D players or any other device that we feel wow in that time. Year of the 1960s, 1970s,  and 1980s also, 90% of work was done manually and remaining 10% was done mechanically not complete technology, after the year 1990s we came to know that something was started that time, what was it, nothing but the revolution of technology. From that time I feel the technology was, colored television and many more channels in T.V. Once upon a time we have only one channel (in India) that was nothing but Doordarshan. Now come back to present time (the year 2018 )we have hundreds of T.V channels, movies, News, sports and much more entertainment channels. 
Till now I am telling about the technology which we surrounded and we feel that it is latest and updated. For your kind information present, we use the technology is just one decade(10 years) back or more. I think all are shocked, let’s tell you a simple example have you seen latest Hollywood movies like Iron Man, Fast & Furious, Terminator, Mission Impossible and many more. They use the advanced technology which is already invented, then why it’s not available for us. Because it is in the hands of scientists and moreover it is expensive too. So a common human being cannot afford it. Scientists are working on it make useful to all and affordable also.

Technology, where it started I think nobody knows, someone says wheel changed it. Once upon a time wheel was made of wood later iron and now rubber with the support of iron, steel, and many more metals. This is also technology. We all think technology is only computers, mobile phones, and televisions, that’s all. No, not only this is it. It’s quite different we think because of scientists already use the latest and advanced technology. Once going back to some time in the year when first rocket was launched and the first man to step on the moon and many more in space technology and what about of in the field of Medical science and about manufacturing companies. There they already use the advanced technology.

When the revolution of technology started all are crazy about it and gathering them. Radio, when I was a child, that time most of the people interested in it. That time it is mainly used for listen news songs and dramas. It was damn popular that time, they feel like status symbol also. After some time television took the place of radio. Now people not only can hear but also see the picture. Landline phones are that time big thing of technology and I don’t think most of the people know the word “Technology“. The word “Technology” was heard after the Computers and Mobile Phones entered the market. Then people feel the technology is coming but they didn’t feel it will change the entire world one day. Just think in our present time without it we cannot survive our daily life.

In India, the technology started slowly but became very fast in few years. People were accepting the things and understanding the technology as well. Starting technology in India, slow because of the price was very high, within a few years the objects related to technology price came down so even a poor can afford it. 

Not only in India but also the entire world felt that there are many advantages of technology in our daily life. They started inventing new products to be more useful for all.